• 6th IFAD 2017

    FIRST BATCH OF EARLY BIRD ONLINE REGISTRATIONS NOW OPEN

    November 23-25th 2017
    Hilton Congress Centre, Antwerp, Belgium

    We are very pleased to announce the Sixth International Fluid Academy Days, which will take place on November 23-25th 2017 at the Hilton Hotel in Antwerp, Belgium. The aim of this sixth edition is again to review recent advances in fluid management, and hemodynamic and organ function monitoring in the critical care setting in a comprehensive manner for intensivists, anaesthesiologists and emergency physicians as well as interested internists and surgeons. However the meeting will deal with any broad topic related to critical care. As always it is also a great way to promote professional interaction between faculty members, participants and delegates of the industry. This website is regularly updated. Last modification by Adminstrator (Manu Malbrain) on March 19th 2017 at 10:00 AM

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  • About iFAD

    The iFAD started as local initiative form the pharmaceutical working group on fluids from the Ziekenhuis Netwerk Antwerpen (www.zna.be). Today iFAD is integrated within the not-for-profit charitable organization iMERiT, International Medical Education and Research Initiative, under Belgian law and as such the iFAD Organising Committee strongly recognizes and values a constructive partnership with the industry.

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  • Brand new website!

    The IFAD website content is based on the philosophy of FOAM (Free Open Access Medical education – #FOAMed). The organising committee gives their time freely and receives no financial benefit. This in part explains the wonderful passions for philanthropy, sharing, education and innovation that make the IFAD unique.

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  • Free Open Access Medical Education and Member Benefits

    The International Fluid Academy adheres to the FOAM principles for all website visitors: FREE Open Access Medical Education (#FOAMed #FOAMcc #FOAMus).

    This website is certified by Health On the Net Foundation. Click to verify. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information:
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    We are very pleased to announce the Sixth International Fluid Academy Days, which will take place on November 23-25th 2017 at the Hilton Hotel in Antwerp, Belgium. The aim of this sixth edition is again to review recent advances in fluid management, and hemodynamic and organ function monitoring in the critical care setting in a comprehensive manner for intensivists, anaesthesiologists and emergency physicians as well as interested internists and surgeons. However the meeting will deal with any broad topic related to critical care. As always it is also a great way to promote professional interaction between faculty members, participants and delegates of the industry.

    Read more

  • iFAD history

    The iFAD started as local initiative from the pharmaceutical working group on fluids from the Ziekenhuis Netwerk Antwerpen (www.zna.be). Today iFAD is integrated within the not-for-profit charitable organization iMERiT...

    This website is certified by Health On the Net Foundation. Click to verify. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information:
    verify here.

     

     

     

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EFSUMB Course Book

EFSUMB Course Book

Chapter 01 - Basic Physical Principles of medical ultrasound

EFSUMB: The European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology

Medical ultrasound
is based on the use of high-frequency sound to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of patients. Ultrasound frequencies range from 2 to approximately 15 MHz, although even higher frequencies may be used in some situations.

The ultrasound beam originates from mechanical oscillations of numerous crystals in a transducer, which is excited by electrical pulses (piezoelectric effect). The transducer converts one type of energy into another (electrical <--> mechanical/sound). 

The ultrasound waves (pulses of sound) are sent from the transducer, propagate through different tissues, and then return to the transducer as reflected echoes. The returned echoes are converted back into electrical impulses by the transducer crystals and are further processed to form the ultrasound image presented on the screen.

Ultrasound transducers contain a range of ultrasound frequencies, termed bandwidth. For example, 2.5-3.5 MHz for general abdominal imaging and 5.0-7.5 MHz for superficial imaging.

Ultrasound waves are reflected at the surfaces between the tissues of different density, the reflection being proportional to the difference in impedance. If the difference in density is increased, the proportion of reflected sound is increased, and the proportion of transmitted sound is proportionately decreased.

If the difference in tissue density is very different, then the sound is completely reflected, resulting in total acoustic shadowing. Acoustic shadowing is present behind bones, calculi (stones in kidneys, gallbladder, etc.) and air (intestinal gas).

Echoes are not produced if there is no difference in a tissue or between tissues. Homogenous fluids like blood, bile, urine, contents of simple cysts, ascites and pleural effusion are seen as echo-free structures.

The EFSUMB provides excellent #FOAMed #FOAMcc #FOAMus #POCUS information on medical ultrasound. Below you can find a link to the original EFSUMB webpage to view and download different chapter on medical ultrasound.

Chapter 01 - Basic Physical Principles of medical ultrasound [Postema M, Kotopoulis S, Jenerka K-V]
VIEW - DOWNLOAD & PRINT

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