Dr Pietro Caironi is an associate professor at the faculty of medicine, department of anaesthesia and critical care, at the University of Milan, Italy. He graduated with honors from the university of Milan, Italy in 2000 and achieved the same highest level of distinction in his residency program in anaesthesia and critical care in 2004. He did his internship in medicine, anaesthesia and critical care at the University of Milan and was also a research fellow at the Massachusetts general hospital, Harvard medical school, Boston, USA. In particular he has been awarded as a finalist of the Cournand and Comroe Young Investigator Award within cardiopulmonary and critical care council of the American Heart Association in 2004 and in 2008 he has received the ECCRN Clinical research Award of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. He has more than 41 publications, 17 book chapters, 55 abstracts and 17 proceedings to his credit. He holds various teaching activities in the University of Milan and also sits in the Editorial Board of Minerva Anesthesiologica and as reviewer for Intensive Care Medicine, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Minerva Anesthesiologica and Blood Transfusion. Assoc. Prof Caironi’s main research interest is in the area of lung physiology and acute respiratory failure, sepsis, urinary electrolytes and renal function and fluid therapy.