The new ESICM Early Enteral Nutrition Guidelines
TOPMAST TRial - TOnicity of Perioperative Maintenance SoluTions (TOPMAST-1)
Maintenance fluid use is very variable in the perioperative setting
Fluid use in resource poor countries
Perioperative populations are not homogeneous https://academic.oup.com/bja/article/117/3/402/1744328
Strategies for Intravenous Fluid Resuscitation in Trauma Patients https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs00268-016-3865-7.pdf
South African colleagues would eventually use colloids (including HES) in hypotensive patients.
Cardiac output monitoring is not available on a regular basis!